Summarize the issues

Optical devices: What are they? How and why were they used? Were they available?
Use of optical devices: Were they used? How can we tell?

Hockney has two main issues. What projections were artists able to make? And how did they do it?

Above all, there is a need for ongoing optical/artistic experimentation to explore the making of art from projected images.

Summary of the issues

The basic issues address the nature of the optical devices and their use to make optical projections. We then ask if the projections were used to make paintings and how we can tell if the projections were used to make paintings. Can a projected image of a complicated subject form an accurate basis for a painting? These are central issues and they gave yet to be tested.

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